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(no subject) [Sep. 18th, 2009|12:26 pm]

Cleft lip (cheiloschisis) and cleft palate (palatoschisis) (colloquially known as harelip), which can also occur together as cleft lip and palate, are variations of a type of clefting congenital deformity caused by abnormal facial development during gestation. A cleft is a fissure or opening—a gap. It is the non-fusion of the body's natural structures that form before birth.

Clefts can also affect other parts of the face, such as the eyes, ears, nose, cheeks and forehead. In 1976, Dr. Paul Tessier described fifteen lines of cleft. These craniofacial clefts are rare and are frequently described as Tessier clefts using the numerical locator devised by Dr. Tessier.[1]

A cleft lip or palate can be successfully treated with surgery soon after birth. Cleft lips or palates occur in somewhere between one in 600-800 births.

[edit] Causes of cleft
During the first six to eight weeks of pregnancy, the shape of the embryo's head is formed. Five primitive tissue lobes grow:

a) one from the top of the head down towards the future upper lip; (Frontonasal Prominence)
b-c) two from the cheeks, which meet the first lobe to form the upper lip; (Maxillar Prominence)
d-e) and just below, two additional lobes grow from each side, which form the chin and lower lip; (Mandibular Prominence)
If these tissues fail to meet, a gap appears where the tissues should have joined (fused). This may happen in any single joining site, or simultaneously in several or all of them. The resulting birth defect reflects the locations and severity of individual fusion failures (e.g., from a small lip or palate fissure up to a completely malformed face).

The upper lip is formed earlier than the palate, from the first three lobes named a to c above. Formation of the palate is the last step in joining the five embryonic facial lobes, and involves the back portions of the lobes b and c. These back portions are called palatal shelves, which grow towards each other until they fuse in the middle.[7] This process is very vulnerable to multiple toxic substances, environmental pollutants, and nutritional imbalance. The biologic mechanisms of mutual recognition of the two cabinets, and the way they are glued together, are quite complex and obscure despite intensive scientific research.[8]

The cause of cleft lip and cleft palate formation can be genetic in nature. A specific variation in a gene that can have abnormalities causing the Van der Woude Syndrome increases threefold the occurrence of these deformities has been identified by Zucchero et al. in 2004[9] as reported by the BBC.[10]

Environmental influences may also cause, or interact with genetics to produce, orofacial clefting. Some environmental factors that have been studied include: seasonal causes (such as pesticide exposure); maternal diet and vitamin intake; retinoids- which are members of the vitamin A family; anticonvulsant drugs; alcohol; cigarette use; nitrate compounds; organic solvents; parental exposure to lead; and illegal drugs (cocaine, crack cocaine, heroin, etc).

If a person is born with a cleft, the chances of that person having a child with a cleft, given no other obvious factor, rises to 1 in 14.[citation needed] Research continues to investigate the extent to which Folic acid can reduce the incidence of clefting.

In some cases, cleft palate is caused by syndromes which also cause other problems. Stickler's Syndrome can cause cleft lip and palate, joint pain, and myopia.[citation needed] Loeys-Dietz syndrome can cause cleft palate or bifid uvula, hypertelorism, and aortic aneurysm.[citation needed] Cleft lip/palate may be present in many different chromosome disorders including Patau Syndrome (trisomy 13). Many clefts run in families, even though there does not seem to be any identifiable syndrome present.[citation needed]

Cleft lip and palate is very treatable; however, the kind of treatment depends on the type and severity of the cleft.

Most children with a form of clefting are monitored by a cleft palate team or craniofacial team through young adulthood. Care can be lifelong. Treatment procedures can vary between craniofacial teams. For example, some teams wait on jaw correction until the child is aged 10 to 12 (argument: growth is less influential as deciduous teeth are replaced by permanent teeth, thus saving the child from repeated corrective surgeries), while other teams correct the jaw earlier (argument: less speech therapy is needed than at a later age when speech therapy becomes harder). Within teams, treatment can differ between individual cases depending on the type and severity of the cleft.

In the 18th century, pioneering surgeon Dr. Victor Collins devised the first non-skin graft procedure for the treatment of infantile unilateral incomplete and complete cleft lips. This technique involves the partial circumcision of the foreskin and then being applied to the affected area.[citation needed] This technique has led the way in the modern day removal of the two most common types of cleft lip.

[edit] Cleft lip treatment
Within the first 2–3 months after birth, surgery is performed to close the cleft lip. While surgery to repair a cleft lip can be performed soon after birth, the often preferred age is at approximately 10 weeks of age, following the "rule of 10s" coined by surgeons Wilhelmmesen and Musgrave in 1969 (the child is at least 10 weeks of age; weighs at least 10 pounds, and has at least 10g hemoglobin). If the cleft is bilateral and extensive, two surgeries may be required to close the cleft, one side first, and the second side a few weeks later. The most common procedure to repair a cleft lip is the Millard procedure pioneered by Ralph Millard. Dr. Ralph Millard performed the first procedure at a Mobile Army Surgical Hospital (MASH) unit in Korea.[12]

Often an incomplete cleft lip requires the same surgery as complete cleft. This is done for two reasons. Firstly the group of muscles required to purse the lips run through the upper lip. In order to restore the complete group a full incision must be made. Secondly, to create a less obvious scar the surgeon tries to line up the scar with the natural lines in the upper lip (such as the edges of the philtrum) and tuck away stitches as far up the nose as possible. Incomplete cleft gives the surgeon more tissue to work with, creating a more supple and natural-looking upper lip.

Often a cleft palate is temporarily closed, the cleft isn't closed, but it is covered by the a palatal obturator (a prosthetic device made to fit the roof of the mouth covering the gap).

Cleft palate can also be corrected by surgery, usually performed between 6 and 12 months. Approximately 20-25% only require one palatal surgery to achieve a competent velopharyngeal valve capable of producing normal, non-hypernasal speech. However, combinations of surgical methods and repeated surgeries are often necessary as the child grows. One of the new innovations of cleft lip and cleft palate repair is the Latham appliance. The Latham is surgically inserted by use of pins during the child's 4th or 5th month. After it is in place, the doctor, or parents, turn a screw daily to bring the cleft together to assist with future lip and/or palate repair.

If the cleft extends into the maxillary alveolar ridge, the gap is usually corrected by filling the gap with bone tissue. The bone tissue can be acquired from the patients own chin, rib or hip.
A tympanostomy tube is often inserted into the eardrum to aerate the middle ear. This is often beneficial for the hearing ability of the child.

Speech problems are usually treated by a speech-language pathologist. In some cases pharyngeal flap surgery or augmentation pharyngoplasty is performed to reduce the escape of nasal airflow in speech sounds requiring oral air pressure, to improve the pronunciation of those sounds, and reduce nasality in those parts of speech that are not normally nasalized. The speech-language pathologist may also be called on to correct incorrect speaking habits that the child developed before the cleft was corrected surgically.

A craniofacial team is routinely used to treat this condition. The majority of hospitals still use craniofacial teams; yet others are making a shift towards dedicated cleft lip and palate programs. While craniofacial teams are widely knowledgeable about all aspects of craniofacial conditions, dedicated cleft lip and palate teams are able to dedicate many of their efforts to being on the cutting edge of new advances in cleft lip and palate care.

Many of the top pediatric hospitals are developing their own CLP clinics in order to provide patients with comprehensive multi-disciplinary care from birth through adolescence. Allowing an entire team to care for a child throughout their cleft lip and palate treatment (which is ongoing) allows for the best outcomes in every aspect of a child's care. While the individual approach can yield significant results, current trends indicate that team based care leads to better outcomes for CLP patients. .[14]

The members of the craniofacial team at a minimum include a plastic or facial plastic surgeon trained in craniofacial surgery, otolaryngologist, geneticist, orthodontist, and social worker.

A complete listing of craniofacial teams in the United States is available through the Cleft Palate Foundation
Cleft may cause problems with feeding, ear disease, speech and socialization.

Due to lack of suction, an infant with a cleft may have trouble feeding. An infant with a cleft palate will have greater success feeding in a more upright position. Gravity will help prevent milk from coming through the baby's nose if he/she has cleft palate. Gravity feeding can be accomplished by using specialized equipment, such as the Haberman Feeder, or by using a combination of nipples and bottle inserts like the one shown, is commonly used with other infants. A large hole, crosscut, or slit in the nipple, a protruding nipple and rhythmically squeezing the bottle insert can result in controllable flow to the infant without the stigma caused by specialized equipment.

Individuals with cleft also face many middle ear infections which can eventually lead to total hearing loss. The Eustachian tubes and external ear canals may be angled or tortuous, leading to food or other contamination of a part of the body that is normally self cleaning.

Speech is both receptive and expressive. We hear and understand spoken language (receptive) We learn to manipulate our mouth, tongue, oral cavity, to express ourselves (expressive).

Hearing is related to learning to speak. Babies with palatal clefts may have compromised hearing and therefore, if the baby cannot hear, it cannot try to mimic the sounds of speech. Thus, even before expressive language acquisition, the baby with the cleft palate is at risk for receptive language acquisition. Because the lips and palate are both used in pronunciation, individuals with cleft usually need the aid of a speech therapist.

Bonding with the infant, socializing with family and community may be interrupted by the unexpected appearance, unusual speech and the surgical interventions necessary. Support for the parents as well as for the child can be pivotal.

[edit] Psychosocial issues
Having a cleft palate/lip does not inevitably lead to a psychosocial problem. Most children who have their clefts repaired early enough are able to have a happy youth and a healthy social life. However, it is important to remember that adolescents with cleft palate/lip are at an elevated risk for developing psychosocial problems especially those relating to self concept, peer relationships, and appearance. It is important for parents to be aware of the psychosocial challenges their adolescents may face and to know where to find professional help if problems arise.

In some countries, cleft lip or palate deformities are considered reasons (either generally tolerated or officially sanctioned) to perform abortion beyond the legal fetal age limit, even though the fetus is not in jeopardy of life or limb. Some human rights activists contend this practice of "cosmetic murder" amounts to eugenics. British clergywoman Joanna Jepson, who suffered from a congenital jaw deformity herself (not a cleft lip or palate as is sometimes reported), has started legal action to stop the practice in the UK [22][23] (although in the UK, such an abortion would not be permitted under the 1967 Abortion Act, because a cleft lip and palate is not considered a serious handicap).

The Japanese anime Ghost Stories arose some controversy when people complained of an episode featuring a Kuchisake-onna (a ghost who is said to have a Glasgow smile through her face) because her scar resembled cleft lip.[24]
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(no subject) [Aug. 18th, 2009|02:11 pm]
Samantha Schol
ILA Paper
Ms. Davis
What to pack and how to assemble an Alaskan summer first aid kit
The Alaskan summers are unique to the entire rest of the world. There are many things to do In Alaska in the summer many people come to Alaska from many different parts of the world to see the beauty and wilds of the last frontier state. Though there are parks and lodges for people to stay at many people like to go out into the wilderness of Alaska and explore for themselves and this is where many people run into trouble.
Weather it is fishing on the Russian river, repelling down the many cliff faces, floating on one of the many rivers, or just ATVing there are many possible dangers here in Alaska. The outdoorsman or woman should be aware and prepared for. Alaska despite its alluring beauty is also an unforgiving deadly place. It is when people let their guard down and get a little too comfortable with nature is when people get hurt. There are many activities to do in Alaska in the summer months all of which can become a life and death struggle in a matter of minutes if not prepared for the possibility of having something go wrong.
First aid kits are convertible to which ever outdoor recreation you could pick such as fishing, canoeing, repelling and hunting. The first thing you will have to do is get a bigger bag. The itty bitty tiny weenie thing you bout at the gas station trying to pull its self off as a first aid kit is laughable at best, and wouldn’t help you if a mosquito bit you.
Everyone should have a proper standard first aid kit when venturing outdoors. Standard Wal-mart first aid kits can be purchased for about $15.00 and offer the best OTC first aid kit. It offers many with many different things. This one includes 30 of different sized band aids, 3 rolls of sterile gauze, 10 packages of 4x4 gauze squares, 2 ace bandage, and maybe OTC pain relievers, anti histamines, night time pain relievers, cold and flu relievers, antibiotic cream, and iodine and sanitization squares. These packages usually come in small fabric bags and weigh about a pound. Though these bags are alright for home use they are not adequate when adventuring outdoors in Alaska.
Nobody has ever died from lack of planning of the worst and hoping for the best. A standard Alaskan first aide should weigh about 2 to three pounds depending on the sport. When adventuring out into the Alaskan wilderness you must think about your surroundings before you get there. Will you be out on the water? Are you going to be alone or with friends? What types of accidents may happen and what dangers might you be in and how would you fix them?
There are many things to add and change to your first aid kit. First you will need a different bag, if you go to an army surplus store there are medic bags that you can buy, they cost anywhere from five dollars to twenty dollars but they work far better than anything that you can get in a chain store. Most of the bags are water resistant but not water proof, so if you will be fishing or floating a river remember to wrap your first aid kit in a simple plastic heavy duty trash bag and tie it to its own life vest. So incase to boat capsizes you can still find your first aid kit and survive until rescue arrives.
There are many things you still need to add to the inside of your Alaskan first aid kit. Put at least two days worth of any critical medications such as heart medicine and eppi pens in a water proof container. Put your cellular phone in the kit so it will not get separated and is easy to find in an emergency. Have a small handbook that gives instructions to the reader about situations that come up in the wilderness such as wildfires, earthquakes, falls and animal attacks. Water purification tablets because you will die from dehydration before you starve to death but if you catch water borne pathogen because you drank bad water. A water proof fire starter that you know how to use hypothermia is a big Alaskan killer the sooner you can get warm and dry the better your chances. Powered sugary drink mixes, or instant coffee or candy for a sudden boost of energy. A pre packaged red rain poncho to stay dry and warm and to also act as a signal for help. A pair of needle nose pliers and wire cutters in case someone is gored by a fishing hook. A sterile needle and fishing line for stitches and for smaller wounds a tube of super glue. A tunicate such as surgical tubing or a store bought tunicate for massive bleeding. Pepper spray for bears and to keep bears out of your shelter that may be following the smell of blood or food. A spare set of contact lenses or glasses in an accident glasses and contacts can be destroyed or broken. Mosquito repellant and bug bite cream.
If you prepare and plan accordingly trips into the Alaskan wilderness even though there may be an accident you will be better prepared to survive them. Though it may be a short or long amount of time being prepared helps people survive the initial accident and trauma and make it through until rescuers can get you or others to safety. Though you may not think that you will need any of the things that you put into your safety kit you may come upon an accident or the accident does not happen to you. But being prepared saves lives it may be yours or someone else’s but it has never hurt anybody to be prepared.

Giving credit where credit is due.
Jim Schol’s, Samantha Schol’s, and Sammy Choen’s brain and wilderness survival training and military training.
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(no subject) [Aug. 17th, 2009|05:45 pm]
sterilization of reterded permiscous women CREEPY!!!

Samantha Schol
Mrs. Lierley
Wrongful pregnancy
If a person has ever been on an airplane there is a good chance they had to sit next to the screaming baby. That alone would probably make the person who’s ears are still ringing come quickly to the conclusion that they never ever wanted to have children. They would never have to change a diaper, stay up all night and with the baby, or maybe even try to fish a wrist watch out of the S trap of the toilet. Being a parent is really hard emotionally, physically and financially. There are many reasons why people never wanted or stop wanting children so they go to get sterilized(1).
This is where the problem lies there are malpractice suits that have been tried and the health care professional found guilty of negligence and as a result a child was born to a family who did not wish to have a child(2). There is a rule that says a plaintiff can not sue a physician for a wrongful birth if a sterilization procedure was carried out to the best of the physicians abilities and a healthy child was born(1A). There have been biases where a person looking to be responsible with their sexual life and become sterilized have been turned away because of doctors biases(2A). There were rules written back in the 1950’s saying who could get sterilized must have at least 1-3 children or with a history of failed pregnancies or over the age of 40 to delegable to receive sterilization(3A). With the childfree movement becoming bigger and more popular more and more people are looking to sterilization as an answer to their needs who are being turned away by doctors(4A).
Sterilization(3) is the inability to have children by way of medical procedure and are almost always irreversible or the action to cause deliberate infertility of a man or a woman. There are many types of sterilization that are offered many are considered minor surgeries or day surgeries(4). Tubular ligation(5) which is where a woman chooses to have here “tubes tied” referring to the fallopian tubes. She can either have them totally removed and both right and left tubes and cauterized(7) through the vagina which is known as laparoscopy(6). There are also sterilization procedures for men the most popular procedures is called a vasectomy(8) a vasectomy is the excision(9) of the vas deferens(10) that carries sperm from the testicles and to the penis. Many people use sterilization as a means of birth control for many reasons they may have all the children they want or can afford to have and no longer have a need for another baby. They may want to never have children there the women and men are looking for a perminate solution to (11) condoms, birth control pills and IUD’s.
It seems that today with the baby worshiping that society looks down not wanting children. Theses people who are opting for sterilization are people who are taking the responsible steps necessary to reach their goal of being a successful productive person. Theses are people do not want to have to abort a fetus or live with the hanging basket of insecurity of giving a child up for adoption when there are steps that they could take to avoid the conception of the child all together.(13) There are also many women who have had a miscarriage and would like to be sterilized, though their state, health insurance or local physicians dictate that they have at least two to four miscarriages before they will authorize the woman for sterilization. There was a popular practice that women and to be either over 40 or have anywhere from 1-3 children or a history of at least two to four miscarriages to even be seen as an option for sterilization(14).
Which brings us to Seslar v. Chaffee(15). Seslar did not want any children under went an abdominal bilateral salpingectomy(20). A few months later she became pregnant it was discovered that the doctor Chaffee removed her right ovary and fallopian tube but not her left. When she confronted the doctor who did her surgery he told her that he left the left ovary and fallopian tube in because he figured she would want to eventually have children and didn‘t want to deal with her when she came back to find a way to have a baby. She sued and won for the cost of her procedure and the cost to rear her child even though her child was born healthy and happy.
The pervious claims that had gone before that court was dismissed due to the “blessings doctrine”(1A) which was written in the 1930’s and stated that the birth of a child was a blessing and not harmful or intrusive to a parent. This means that a woman or a man can pay full price for a sterilization and not be sterilized because the surgeon thought that they were going to want children later on in life, and didn’t want to deal with the patient trying to get pregnant later on. The few times that people who have had a child, sued and won a case of this caliber in the past was because of birth defects, brain damage, and sometimes death of a child, mother or both because of doctor doing a sterilization procedure incorrectly.(15)
The Seslar v. Chaffee was repealed by Chaffee and the appeal was taken all the way to the supreme court in the state of Indiana where it was found that Chaffee was guilty of negligence and was to pay damages to Seslar.(15) This case was a big case because it was a landmark case and opened the door to other cases dealing with healthy babies born to couples that previously had surgeries and now want to sue for money to help raise their children. It also creates more importance for surgeons, and physicians to do their jobs correctly and provide proper follow up care because if they don’t there will be consequences. This case also overruled the blessings doctrine and this is the first case that a family that was “blessed” with a healthy baby was given monetary damages since the blessings doctrine’s inception.(15)
Doctors have been able to run rabid determining weather or not to provide sterilization to people actively seeking the procedure. Some excuses that doctors have given women that the doctors feel are ineligibles for sterilization are that the patient will change their minds, the patient is too young to know that they want, the patient has not meet the right person yet, the patient should have a few kids first, the patient should come back in a few years, the patient should not have sex if they do not want children, they should use temporary forms of contraception or hostility and refusal from the doctor.(2A)
For a long time a rule of thumb among doctors back in the 1970’s was that a woman had to be over the age of forty with no children.(3A) Another rule of thumb was a woman must have a Sycuans documented history of multiple miscarriages in one state the woman had to have at lest 5 miscarriages with zero viable children to be eligible for sterilization.(3A) In the 1930’s the only way a woman could be sterilized is that she had to have no children with a documented history of miscarriages or ovarian cancer. This rule the woman who wants a sterilization procedure due to other reason besides ovarian cancer must also must be married and the woman’s husband has to consent for her to get her tubes tied.(3A) Although during that time frame the unconsented sterilization of men and women who were considered to be promiscuous and retarded because they did not want retarded people to breed.(16) But women who desperately wanted children of their own had to suffer the devastation of multiple miscarriages because they would not be granted permission to get sterilized.
There is a new movement that gained popularity in the 1960’s and has caught on like wildfire today is living a childfree lifestyle.(4A) Childfree is the new spin on the women who were childless, thought the term childless was meant that the woman was barren and unwanted she was destined to be a spinster though the women had made a conscious decision not to have children. The childfree lifestyle is the lifestyle of never wanting and never having children, finding mates that do not children. Childfree is the new term that people have termed to become more politically correct with their conscious choice not to have children, they are proud that they don‘t have children and want people to know that they are childless by choice. The childfree lifestyle has become so popular it has been discussed on television talk shows like ”The Today/Good Morning America” show(18). There have are many wealthy independent women who are considered role models and popular figures in the past and today who made the decision to be childfree such as Theodor Seuss Geisel aka Dr. Seuss, Katherine Hepburn, George Clooney, Jay Leno, Florence Nightingale, Georgia O’Keefe and Oprah Winfrey(19). Theses men and women made the decision that their personal lives, careers, and relationship with others came before having children and that it would make them happiest never to have children.
The facts are is that women and men are wanting to have more personal time with for themselves, with their spouses, and more independence away from responsibilities and duties of rising children. many people have become more and more comfortable with the decision of being childfree and are proud of it. It is a very sad fact that many of the people who never wanted children are refused services when they have the money to pay for it. Theses procedures that would save fetuses, and eliminate emotional distress and pain of women and men who are refused for sterilization and end up becoming a parent later on. Even when sterilization is obtained doctor error and even sabotage happens to people who get theses procedures done. There are such strict rules and regulations about people who are brain dead and will be a vegetable for the rest of their life being able to pull the plug and letting the patient die. Then why is there such resistance from medical professionals to let a patient make a conscious choice and not bring a life into the world when that is their wish. It seems that if medical professionals are not allowed to pull the plug on a patient on a ventilator and take a life. Then medical professionals should not be allowed to play god and assist in creating life by refusing services to a patient that would render them sterile. When everything is all said and done it is the patients body it is the patient who gets to decide what procedure they would like to have done to their body. (21)
The proof is in the pudding as my mother would say and when a patient is trying to obtain sterilization because he or she is making an informed responsible adult decision and that is more difficult than getting tattoos of the Mary the Holy Mother's face strategically placed on a mans penis then there is something really wrong with the system.

Dorland’s Medical Dictionary (10 different references)
medical assisting textbook Delmar(2 reference)
my dad Jim Schol(1 reference)
Good morning America watched it on television at home(1 reference)
ttp://www.in.gov/judiciary/opinions/archive/07130101.mgr.html(1 reference)
http://thebritgirl.com/2007/03/15/childfree-just-try-getting-sterilized/(1 reference)
Wikapedia.com/(1 reference)
http://www.freewebs.com/childfreelinks/paper.htm (1 reference)

1.Sterilized-Dorlands Medical Dictionary
2. Malpractice suits- http://www.in.gov/judiciary/opinions/archive/07130101.mgr.html
3. Sterilization definition-Dorland’s medical dictionary

4.Day surgeries-my dad
5.laparoscopy- Dorland’s medical dictionary
6. Cauterized Dorland’s medical dictionary
7.vasectomy Dorland’s medical dictionary
9.Excision Dorland’s medical dictionary
10.Vas deferens Dorland’s medical dictionary
11. Condoms, birth control pills,-medical assisting textbook Delmar
13. About the people who are wanting to get sterilized-http://thebritgirl.com/2007/03/15/childfree-just-try-getting-sterilized/
14 40/unmarried/no children/History of miscarriages rule-
15 malpractice suit- http://www.in.gov/judiciary/opinions/archive/07130101.mgr.html
16 retarded people and sterilization-Wikapedia.com/
18 the today show-the today show watched it at home
19 child free people-http://thebritgirl.com/2007/03/15/childfree-just-try-getting-sterilized/
(20A,B,C) abdominal bilateral salpingectomy
(21) Delmar medical assisting textbook-definition assault and battery
1A. Blessings doctrine http://www.in.gov/judiciary/opinions/archive/07130101.mgr.html
2A. Doctor biases-http://thebritgirl.com/2007/03/15/childfree-just-try-getting-sterilized/
3A. 50’s rules-http://www.freewebs.com/childfreelinks/paper.htm
4A. Childfree-http://www.freewebs.com/childfreelinks/paper.htm
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great sites for info in childfree posts [Aug. 15th, 2009|01:56 pm]

the today show child free youtube and politicaly incorrect with bill maher

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(no subject) [Apr. 27th, 2009|12:53 pm]
Samantha schol

Patching up the American family
What Maher means by this is that the statistics of what happens to divorced families such as being on welfare, juvenile delinquency and substance abuse is such a problem? They are trying to support and build healthy happy families and marriages that to control the problem caused by divorce. They have to try to help the marriages that already exist succeed and help fix marriages that are beginning flounder, and may fail without help.
Focus: Government is stepping in and helping marriages succeed in order to prevent the crippling effects caused by divorce.
SUP. Suffering children, welfare, and poverty are the effects of many divorces
SUP. Strengthen marriage, and creating new marriage laws
SUP. Couples soon to be wed are encouraged if not required to get pre-marital counseling
The government is patching up the holes that would otherwise sink floundering marriages in families across America in Patching up the American family.

Coontz is talking about the downward spiral that marriage had become, and that if the trend continues that the public will no longer accept marriage a special rite like it should be. Even though there is no magic pill to fix everything that is wrong with marriage statistics today we have to try to start somewhere.
Focus: Resurrecting and supporting a happy healthy family life in modern marriages.
SUP: the downward spiral of holding marriage as a sacred life time institution, of what it used to be.
SUP: help support marriages it to improve work-life policies so that couples and families can spend more time together and build stronger bonds, and possibly provide counseling.
SUP: making it easier for marriages to succeed.
The nostalgia that the time has stolen away from the people that grew up with a loving consistent devoted family is not just a dream anymore now on the rebound while more people strive to have a happy and healthy marriage and family life their dreams can become realities, in nostalgia as ideology.

What the sentence means is that if the parents set a crack addicted, lying, disillusioned, wrongheaded, poverty ridden example for their kids the children won't know what a moral was if it bit them. You can't expect a good well rounded child to come from a home where there is nothing but sorrow and hate. Parents have to set a good foundation for their children and to lead by example.
FOCUS: To improve the morals of children in single parent homes parents must put quality over quantity and lead their children by setting a good example.
SUP: parents need to be less narcissistic
SUP: an on-going trusting relationship with a mature ethical adult strongly determines the ethical development of that child.
SUP: children of depressed parents who lash out at their children have more struggles with everything

Moral parent, moral child: family structure matters less to a child's development than the quality of the parenting. This story is about regardless weather a child has a single mom or dads if we are worried about the morals of our youngest people the youngest people get their behaviors from their parents. So if you have a moral parent you have a moral child regardless of the amount of parents in the home.

Old cultures and new international families
Passage meant that the story of Anne-Marie hopes to be an illustrative example of how the Caribbean immigrants are using child-minding as they immigrate to the United States.
FOCUS: Anne-Marie an immigrant from Trinidad in the Caribbean uses child-minding while she is away from her children throughout her new life in America. Her culture still keeps her close with family that live in different countries around the world.
SUP: mothers who immigrates from the Caribbean often rely on child-minding
SUP: when newly arrived to the US A-M's infant sons stayed in the crib bean with her mother to be cared for while she put down roots.
SUP: They had a large international family that spanned several countries yet were all bonded and close to each other.
Old cultures and new international families: the old cultures of such as child minding are coming to America with the immigrants through these practices they create strong bonds with family members far away and help to create international families

I think that marriage is an institution that should not be taken lightly. Things seem simple in the beginning but they complicate as they grow with children, mortgages and life. I think that people should not get married if they are just going to get divorced in a few years of months. Marriages take allot of work and I agree with tee statement from Nostalgia as Ideology that "The most constructive way to support marriages is to improve work-life policies so that couples can spend more time with each other and their kids." This is the real world and even if you can’t spend as much time as you want with your children it has got to be quality over quantity. Children should not be in a bad marriage and a parent might be home all day but how much time gets spent with the child. In a bad marriage there is substance abuse, domestic abuse and possibly sexual abuse towards the children. That no place for children to be, so even if there is a constant parent around it may not be the best thing. I agree with the Moral parent moral child essay on the fact that parents have to lead by example to create well balanced and behaved children. They are healthier, do better in school and are probably not the school bully. I think that the titles of husband, wife, mother and father should be taken with pride and doing the best you can in a marriage or as a parent. Children and spouses are not as returnable as most people may think either you are labeled as a failure as a parent or you lose a lot of money and half of your things in a nasty divorce when you quit nobody wins. When you become a parent or a spouse you are saying that you’re an adult and are able to be held accountable for you and you family’s actions. When it boils down to it there are times when the only people left to lean on is our family.
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(no subject) [Apr. 22nd, 2009|11:55 am]
Samantha Schol
April, 29, 2009
Burning Bridges

The cliché “don’t burn your bridges” is used for many situations in life. It serves as a warning to everyone that they should be wary of making hasty decisions. A bridge is a metaphor for connections a person creates with others personally, professionally, or financially. When someone burns a bridge it means that they have forever damaged that relationship because of something that held momentary significance. The problems that arise when a bridge is burned are much harder if not impossible to mend. That is why people should never burn their bridges.
When employees burn their professional bridges it can affect their professional credibility. At one point or another many people have had a job where they felt underappreciated, under paid and over worked. When thing are not going well at work many people half heartedly wish that they could just walk off a job, very rarely dose that actually happen. Although, walking off a job felt good at the time, people that have burned their bridges at work and now have regrets about doing so. Later, when that employee starts to look for new employment their actions come back to haunt them. They have blemished their professional creditability and are viewed as unreliable. When a prospective employer sees that this applicant walked off a job, that applicant may be passed over for someone else who seems more reliable. Since that bridge is burned with the former employer, the employee has encountered hardships when they have applied for a new job. The hardships that the hasty employee now faces are more severe and longer lasting than the two weeks that it would have taken to properly quit.
Personal relationship bridges can be more emotionally distressing when those particular bridges are burned. When a couple gets married they have said that they will forsake all others until the day they die. Although, they have promised these things to each other, even the best marriages can end badly. If a spouse is unfaithful, there is a big risk that the damage caused by being unfaithful may have ruined the marriage. The years of hard work and emotional investment that each spouse had put into the marriage was destroyed in minutes of unfaithfulness. Both spouses are hurt by what has happened; unfortunately, many couples cannot fix the emotional damage that has been inflicted and end their marriage in divorce. Although, not all unfaithful marriages end in divorce, it will take many months possibly years, to fix the damage that a night of unfaithfulness has caused.
When financial bridges are burned by young people the consequences can plague many of them for years. It is a known fact that many young college students do not have a good personal accounting and budgeting skills. This group of young people has been known to spend copious amounts of money with nothing to show for it. This is a time in many young peoples’ lives when they begin to use and abuse credit cards. With misuse of their credit card they quickly put themselves into debt. A single student can accumulate tens of thousands of dollars of debt while enrolled in college. When they are unable to pay their credit card bill they default on their credit card. Defaulting on a credit card can have devastating effects on their credit score. Even after the credit card mayhem is over the problem with their credit score remains. Many former students have been burdened for years with bad credit because of credit card misuse in their college days.
People can avoid burning their bridges altogether, and save themselves potential years of turmoil in the future. When people burn their bridges they do it in haste not fully thinking about the ramifications of their actions. If someone has a problem at work, in their relationship, or financially they need to stop, analyze the problem. Afterwards, they should devise and carry out a viable solution for that problem. First, need to stop, if they are angry or upset they have to take a time out. It is understandable to become upset when things go badly, but they will never be able to find the best solutions for their problems when they are emotional. Second, they need to analyze their problems. Why they are unhappy with their job, or in their marriage? Why do they run out of money at the end of the month? Once they have found the root of the problem, the third step is they need find a solution to their problem. Talking things out with their spouse or manager about their problems is the beginning of resolving their conflicts in the office or at home. By sitting down and talking things out, they are building a better relationship with their spouse and coworkers. Students with money problems should talk to a financial aide advisor and together develop a student budget. Lastly, once an agreement or plan is decided upon they have to stick to the plan. The student should pass up the extra Starbucks to save money. The husband should pay more attention to the wife on the weekend to mend hurt feelings in their relationship. The employee should help start a casual Friday for the office, to create a neighborly atmosphere. If people would stop, analyze their situation then develop, and stick to a viable solution to their problems they would save themselves many headaches in the future that are caused by burned bridges.
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(no subject) [Apr. 13th, 2009|12:55 pm]
Samantha Schol
Tannen part 3 close relationships
1. Things get worse in a relationship because the people are too close to each other. Then people are strangers they try harder to be clear with each other and realize that miscommunications happen and don’t get too upset over it all. When people are together longer they develop habits that invite miscommunication and when it does happen people get more upset about it.
2. Primary relationships have replaced religion, clan, and mere survival as the foundation for our lives.
3. Talking has evolved from the Stone Age when it was really important to talk to people to today. When people today have most of the ways we show trust, love, or anger is by words not actions and that is why miscommunication between partners is more upsetting. People who think they know us best and when miscommunication happens they take it to heart.
1. Men and women are raised, talked to, and listen differently they grow up in and live in different worlds.
2. Women look for the metamessage they want to be involved, more of I have lived with you this long why do I need to tell you again what kind of ice cream I want from the store. Men are more independent they are the, I ask you, you tell me kind of message.
3. Women’s intuition is when things turn out right because women think that they are right. Reading into the conversation is when women think something is wrong and something turns out to be wrong. They are picking up on the metamessages in the conversations that men sometimes miss. It’s like when women say their fine when they aren’t, men usually don’t know that rule but almost every woman on the face of the planet dose.
4. Complimentary Schism genes: a process by which behaviors that trigger the increasing manifestations of incongruent behavior in a worsening downward spiral. It means what when one person says or does something that makes the other one crazy and this back and forth makes a little mundane thing into something that usually gets blown out of proportion and the two blows up.
5. Women use pronouns because pronouns are almost entirely words that have metamessage meanings and women use more metamessages than men.
6. I don’t think that there is any help for them although I follow Jake better than Louise because Louise is so into the metamessage it is hard to tell where she is coming from by reading you would have to sit and be watching to tell what she was talking about. They should change their conversational styles and probably take a break trying to get any actual information in when there is an argument gets totally lost in metamessages and hurt feelings.
7. Girls usually play in small groups and most of how that play comes about is through talking and saying. In the group everyone is equal and there is no pecking order. Boys play in large groups and they play rougher and they have a pecking order to them. When boys speak to each other it is to tell the others that they are better in this that or the other thing.
8. Dora wants Tom to listen, relate, reassure and share with her about her problem at work. She wants him to ask questions, and tell her about a problem he had at work. Tom skirts the issue, makes jokes about her problem, wondered if she was wrong and then offers a solution. She feels like he wasn’t listening to her or see how important that the problem is to her. She feels upset that Tom doesn’t care about her problems.
9. Uh-huh and Mhm are important because they don’t always mean that the listener isn’t listening they also mean that “yes, I am listening and continue on”. These mean that the person listening is acknowledging what you are saying and they want you to continue but there is nothing that they want to interrupt the story or rant because there is nothing relevant that they have to say or they want to wait to talk about it when the speaker is done speaking. When used at the wrong time these can mean that they person in not listening they are hard to place correctly. When placed incorrectly they can derail an entire conversation.
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(no subject) [Apr. 6th, 2009|11:17 am]
Samantha Schol
Sacred ground
Momadays “Sacred ground” uses both concrete and abstract language to help describe sights and feelings while on a trip to the Medicine Wheel in the Big Horn Mountains. The Medicine Wheel and the mountains that it rests in are thought to be a sacred place by the American Indians. Momaday show the readers what it felt like to be at the Medicine Wheel by his use of abstract language when he describes his time spent at the Medicine Wheel. Momaday describes the Medicine Wheel as having a great calm, and he was deeply moved by the Spirit there as well. Momaday also uses concrete language to describe to the reader what he saw on his trip into the wilderness and at the Medicine Wheel. He describes the rough road he traveled to get up the mountain, the deer standing on the hill, the saddle that the Medicine Wheel sits in, and the view that the Medicine Wheel offers. He describes these things in such detail that the reader could probably draw a picture of the road, scenery, and the deer. Momaday wasn’t just describing the psychical beauty of the mountains and plains; he was also describing the feelings he felt at the Medicine Wheel. To took both concrete and abstract language to make the reader feel like they were on sacred ground without having to visit it for themselves. The American Indians had many sacred places; Medicine Wheel was just one of them.
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(no subject) [Apr. 5th, 2009|02:49 pm]
discriptive paragraph

As I sit by the fire crackling fire as I wait for my blueberry pancakes to cook. Even though the sun is peeking over the moutian tops the air still has a frosty autumn bite to it. It's a cold morning but the fire warms me as I take in the morning rays. I can see the horse, a black mare with white jagged socks, as she drinks noisly from the deep cool stream about fifteen feet in front of me. The thick aquamarine lead roap that attatches to her matching halter is tied to a fallen tree and the slack follows like a love sick puppy after her. She trots across the wet,rocky bank and into the tall grass to eat. Meanwhile, the morning mist shrinks across the green and golden hills. The valley is sorrunded by tall snow capped moutians like a midevial fortress. The moutians arn't as green as the valley because of the red blurberry bushes that spread across he moutian sides like a blush across a virgins cheek. The smell of fresh air, and wet leather mingle with the smell of fire smoke. My muscels ache form the hard days of ridings in a saddle. My calves and thighs feel as though they have become like beef jerkey and knot often because of many days of sitting in a witewahsed office behind a computer desk. The closest I have come to the great outdoors there is the occosanioal shrivled spider plant in a nairghboring cubical. I put my saddle which is cold and covered with dew, across a newly stripped log to dry in morning sun. Near by my tent yellow, blue compression sack, and army green sleeping bag and bedroll lie rolled up on a blue tarp, to keep them clean and dry.
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(no subject) [Apr. 1st, 2009|12:47 pm]
Feel free to comment om any of my papers!!!!
except spelling errors I do catch them before I turn them in!!
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